- Stress hairline cracks extending from
girdles surface into the stone. It occurs during diamond cutting and
- Lightly bearded girdle don’t interfere with diamond’s
brilliance, but when diamond is heavily bearded then it reduces its
shine. At times diamond is re-cut or re-polished to improve its
- Cavity means presence of large or deep
opening in diamond.
- It’s the space left when a surface reaching the crystal
drops out, or when cutter removes the crystal inclusion close to
- It may be result of part of feather breaking away.
- Should not be confused with "Diamond Chip" - the term used for
very small diamonds.
- When viewed through 10X magnifying lens,
chip appears to be a shallow opening on the surface of diamond.
generally has rounded outline and is usually found on girdle, culet or on
- It’s caused due to damage that occurs during cutting and
- It is a mineral crystal (most often other diamond) trapped in
- A crystal can be of any size, color or colorless, and can be
located anywhere in crystal.
- With naked eye crystals look like white or black spots or tiny dots.
- Black spots can be crystals or reflection of crystals.
- These are microscopic small crystals with dust-like appearance.
- Crystals are too small to be
distinguished individually, but cluster appears white or gray
patch in diamond.
- As long as these clouds are small and diffused, they impact the clarity only slightly; however if they are large and
scattered, they do influence the transparency and brilliance of diamond, making the diamond appear undesirably white.
- Some clouds impart hazy look, while some are dense and opaque.
- Cleavage refers to cracks in diamonds
that are usually straight lines and parallel to one of the
diamond’s crystallographic planes (read
hardness of diamond
for more information), or cleavage plane.
- Cleavage affects the durability of stone.
Crack can expand under mechanical stress or while setting in jewelry.
It leads to splitting of the stone when placed in high pressure grip
- Stones with cleavage should be avoided because when set in
jewelry and exposed to daily wear and tear, it can break the diamond.
- It resembles the shape of a feather,
and is commonly used to refer any breakage in a diamond.
- The appearance of feather
depends on the viewing direction. It may appear shiny, transparent,
white or glossy.
- It affects durability of diamond, especially if it’s
on girdle area.
- It can expand under mechanical stress, leading to
breaking of stone.
- Breakage in diamond which is not parallel
to cleavage plane is called Fracture.
- It can be of any shape and
gives diamond the chipped look.
- It is often filled to improve the
clarity of diamond, such diamonds are called Fracture Filled diamonds.
- GIA does not grade fracture-filled diamonds, as fracture filling is not a
- It’s an inclusion resulting from
distortion of crystal during its formation process. Twining wisp is basically,
various inclusions getting twisted together during growth of diamond.
- Inclusions like pinpoints, clouds, crystals, needles, feathers may group
together and form white strip inside the diamond.
- It appears flat and ribbon-like, and can be viewed by 10X magnifying lens
through center of diamond. These are commonly found in fancy colored
- It’s the minute crystal inclusion (under 10X magnification) in form
of tiny dot.
- Pinpoint is the most common flaw found in diamond.
- It is usually of white color, but at times they can be dark as well.
- It has dot-like appearance and does not
affect the clarity of diamond.
- It’s generally not mentioned on the
plotting diagram of diamond reports and mentioned only in comment
- These are crystal inclusion in the form
of long and thin needles.
- A needle can be viewed by naked eye if it has some
color or is of noticeable size. Else it can be viewed by 10X
- A needle can be bright, white or dark in appearance.
- When an inclusion reaches the surface of
diamond then it is called Knot.
- Knots are formed after cutting and
polishing of diamond.
- At times, knots look like slightly raised areas on a
facet of diamond. It can be seen under proper lighting and 10X
- It’s in the form of lines or in the form
of small concentrated area.
- These are not visible from all direction,
i.e. grains may be visible from one direction, but if you change the
direction of stone, it may not be detectable.
- Grains can be white, dark or transparent
in nature. It’s result of improper crystallization of diamond during
formation process or improper polishing of diamond.
These grains are difficult to remove without huge weight loss.
lines are commonly seen in
fancy colored diamonds -
mostly in pink diamonds.
- An indented natural is a portion of original rough diamond crystal that is left unpolished. It extends onto the crown or pavilion.
- The original surface of diamond might
have growth lines, which are triangular in shape. This shows that
diamond has been cut by experienced cutter where he has retained as much
original weight that was possible without compromising on quality of
- Cutter generally leaves the indented
naturals on pavilion, as it dips behind the polished surface of diamond
and is less noticeable. It’s not visible when set in jewelry.
can remove it but in doing so, weight and price of stone reduces.